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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. It then became a question whether it would be better to issue the Primer in a revised form, or to set to work at once to write the present Grammar.

Full text of “Grammar Of The Gothic Language”

I laid the two alternatives before the Delegates, and they preferred to accept feps latter. As a knowledge of Gothic is indispensable to students of the oldest periods of the. I have adopted as far as possible the same method of treating the subject as in my Old English and Historical German Grammars. Considerable care and trouble have been taken in the selection of the material contained in the chapters relating to the phonology and accidence, and I venture to say that the student, who thoroughly masters the book, will not only have gained a comprehensive know- ledge of Gothic, but will also have acquii’ed a drps knowledge of Comparative Germanic Grammar.

In selecting examples to illustrate the sound-laws i have tried as far as possible to give words which also occur in the other Germanic languages, especially in Old English and Old High German. Mark Chapters I-V, and St. This will also be useful as showing the influence which the Greek syntax had upon the Gothic.

The Glossary not only contains all the words occurring in the Gothic Text pp. A short list of the most important works relating to Gothic will be found on pp. From my long experience as teacher of the subject, I should strongly recommend the beginner not to work through the Phonology and the philological part of the Accidence at the outset, but to read Chapter I on Gothic pronunciation, and then to learn the paradigms, and at seuoa same time to read some of the easier portions of the Gospels.

This is undoubtedly the best plan in the end, and will lead to the most satisfactory results. In fact, it is in my opinion a sheer waste of time for a xeula to attempt to study in detail the phonology of any language before he has acquired a good working knowledge of its vocabulary and inflexions.

In conclusion I wish to express in some measure the heartfelt thanks I owe to my wife for her valuable help in compiling the Glossary.

Pronunciation of the Gothic vowels: Pronunciation of the Gothic consonants: Germanic Equivalents of the Indo- Germanic Vowel-sounds. The vowel-system at the close of the Prim.

Germanic Vowels of Unaccented Syllables. Germanic Equivalents of the Gothic Vowel-sounds. The vowels of accented syllables, i Short vowels: The vowels of medial syllables, i Short vowels: The normal equivalents of the Iiidg. The twofold develop- ment of the Indg.

The classification of weak verbs Class I. Gothic forms one member of the Germanic Teu- tonic branch of the Indo-Germanic family of languages. This great family of languages is usually divided into eight branches I. Aryan, consisting of ; i The Indian group, including the language of the Vedas, classical Sanskrit, and the Prakrit dialects ; 2 The Iranian group, including a West Iranian Old Persian, the language of the Persian cuneiform inscriptions, dating from about b.

Armenian, the oldest monuments of which belong to the fifth century a. Greek, with its numerous dialects.

Albanian, the language of ancient inyria. The oldest monuments belong to the seventeenth century. Italic, consisting of Latin and the Umbrian-Samnitic dialects. From the popular form of Latin are descended the Romance languages: Almost the only source of our knowledge of the Gothic language is the fragments of the biblical translation made in the fourth century by Ulfilas, the Bishop of the West Des.


The oldest records of this branch are the runic inscrip- tions, some of which date as far back as the third or fourth century. Up to about it is generally called Old Saxon. The Gothic monuments, as handed down to us, are written in a peculiar alphabet which, according to the Greek ecclesiastical historians Philostorgios and Sokrates, was invented by Ulfilas.

Below are given the Gothic characters in the first line, in the second line their numerical values, and in the third line their transliteration in Roman characters. Two of the above 27 Gothic depe were used as numerals only, viz.

In words borrowed from Greek containing v in the func- tion of a vowel, it is transcribed by y, thus a-vmyooyrj, synagoge, y may be pronounced like the i in English bit. In our transcription the. In some books q, hr, w are represented by kw kvselua hvV respectively.

The Gothic vowel-system is represented by the five elementary letters a, e, i, o, u, and the digraphs ei, iu, ai, and au. Vowel-length was entirely omitted in writing. The vowels e, o uniformly written e, 5 in this grammar were always long, a, u had both a short and a long quantity, i was a short vowel, the corresponding long vowel of which was expressed by the digraph ei after the analogy of the Greek pronunciation of ei in the fourth century, iu was a falling diphthong.

Each of the digraphs ai, ati was used without distinction in writing to express three different sounds wdiich are here written ai, ai, ai and ait, auL, au. A brief description of the sound-values of the above vowel-system will be given in the following paragraphs.

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Our chief sources for ascertaining the approximate quality and quantity of the Gothic simple vowels and diphthongs are: Hence we some- times find ei that is iand occasionally i, written where we should etymologically expect e, and vice versa. These fluctuations occur more frequently in Luke than elsewhere ; examples are: Engl, dial, pronunciation of new. Our means for determining the nature of these sounds are derived partly from a comparison of the Gothic forms in which they occur with the corresponding forms of the other Indo-Germanic languages, and partly from the Gothic spelling of Greek loan-words.

It only occurs before dpes and h, as hadrn, horn ; wadrd, loord ; dadhtar, daughter ; selua, ox. Initially, as also medially and finally after consonants, it was a voiced explosive like English b, as barn, child- blinds, blind] bairan, to hear- salbdn, to anoint] arbi, heritage] lamb, lamb ; -swarb, he wiped.

Medially after vowels it was a voiced bilabial spirant, and may be pronounced like the v in English live, which is a voiced labio-dental spirant, as haban, to have ; sibun, seven ; ibns, even. Initially, as also medially and finally sejla consonants, it was a voiced explosive like the d in English do, as dags, day] ddu]?

Medially after vowels it was a voiced interdental seupa nearly like the th in English then, as faAzx, father badi, bed] srula, to offer.

It may, however, be pronounced like the f in English life, which is labio-dental, as fadar, father ; fulls, full ] nfar, over ; wiilfs, wolf] fimf, five ; gaf, he gave.

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The exact pronunciation of this letter cannot be determined with certainty for all the positions in which it is found. Initial g probably had the same sound as the g in English go. Medially between vowels it was a voiced spirant like the widely spread pronunciation of g in NHG. Final postvocalic g and g in the final combination gs was probably a voiceless spirant like the ch in NHG. Before another guttural it was used to express a guttural nasal q like the y in Greek SiyyeXos, angel] cLyxt, near] and the ng in English thing, or the n in think, as aggilus, angel] briggan, ifo finger] drigkan, to ; sigqan, to sink.

When it was the one, and when the other, can only be determined upon etymological grounds. Examples of the former are siggwan, to sing] aggwiis, and of the latter bliggwan, to heat, strike ; triggws, true, faith- fid. It may be pronounced like the wh in the Scotch pro- nunciation of when, as hreila, time hrdpan, to boast 3.

It only occurs initially and medially, as jer, year ; juggs, young ; juk, yoke lagjan, to lay niujis, new fijands, fend, enemy. They all occur initially, medially, and finally, in the function of consonants.


In the function of vowels they do not occur in stem- syllables, as fugls, fowl, bird tagl, hair sigljo, seal mdijjms, gift bagms, tree, beam ibns, even t6. It occurs as a consonant initially, medially, and finally, as raihts, rights straight ; redan, to counsel bairaii, to bear barn, child fidwor, daur, door.

In the function of a vowel it does not occur in stem- syllables, as akrs, field ; tagr, tear ; htiggrjan, to hunger. After diphthongs and long vowels, as also after consonants not followed by a vowel, it was probably a kind of reduced ii-sound, the exact quality of which cannot be determined. Examples of the former pronunciation are ; — wens, hope ; witan, to wrikan, to persecute swistar, sister taihswo, right hand.

And of the latter sndiws, snow ; waurstw, work skadwjan, to overshadow. Phonetic Survey of the Gothic Sound-system, A. Short a, ai5, tt Long a, 6, au, ii Short ai, i Long e, ai, ei To these must also be added the nasals m, n, and the liquids 1, r in the function of vowels. This difference in the system of accentuation is clearly seen in Old Greek and the old Germanic languages by the preservation of the vowels of unaccented syllables in the former and the weakening or loss of them in the latter.

In the early period of the parent Indg. It is now a generally accepted theory that at a later period of the parent language the system of accentuation became pre- dominantly pitch, which was preserved in Sanskrit and Old Greek, but which must have become predominantly stress again in prim.

This distinction in the quality of the accent was preserved in prim. Germanic in final syllables containing a long vowel, as is seen by the difference in the development of the final long vowels in historic times according as they originally had the ‘broken!

In the parent language the chief accent of a word did not always fall upon the same syllable of a word, but was free or movable as in Sanskrit and Greek, cp. This free accent was still preserved in prim. At a later period of the prim. And the extent to which the weakening of unaccented syllables has been carried in some of the Modern Germanic dialects is well illustrated by such sentences as: The rule for’ the accentuation of uncompounded words is the same in Gothic as in the oldest period of the other Germanic languages, vk.

The position of the secondary stress in trisyllabic and polysyllabic words fluctuated in Gothic, and with the present state of our knowledge of the subject it is impossible to formulate any hard and fast rules concerning it. In compound words it is necessary to distinguish be- tween compounds whose second element is a noun or an adjective, and those whose second element is a verb. In the former case the first element had the chief accent in the parent Indg. But already in prim.

This accounts for the difference in the accentuation of such pairs as dndahafts,: As has been stated above, compound words, whose second element is a noun or an adjective, had originally the chief stress on the first syllable. This simple rule was preserved in Gothic, as frakunjjs, OE.

The parent Indo-Germanic language had the following vowel-system: The short vowels i, u, 9, the long vowels I, ii, and vocalic 1m, n, r occurred originally only in syllables which did not bear the principal accent of the word. The short vowels i, u, and vocalic 1in, rt, r arose from the loss of e in the strong forms ei, eu, el, em, en, er, which was caused by the principal accent having been shifted to some other syllable in the word.

It is generally pronounced like the final vowel in German Gabe.


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