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In this study, we count the pre-Roman, Latin, Arabic, and Visigoth influences as the ones that shaped the development of Spanish before the establishment of the Crown of Castile ina political process through the union of the previously independent kingdoms of Castile and Leon.

Although this might represent a problem to other studies, it is not problematic to ours because word counts were the only requirement to address our questions. In section 5, we provide a discussion of our results.

Therefore, English loanwords that are being used in Spanish casual speech may have still not made it into the literature. Clarendon Press, In addition, studies that analyze speech samples can only look back to some 80 years of history whereas the study of written samples allows for a much higher retrospective outlook. We will count all lexical items that derived directly or indirectly from these languages as baseline Spanish or core Spanish.

1. Introduction

Jorge Luis Borges, Otras se. However, as we have showed, there is a reason for that: For these reasons, studies that investigate the use of loanwords which have not been incorporated to dictionaries in casual speech or in texts that describe current affairs find a greater presence of English loanwords Esteban Asencio ; Gerding et al.

However, we do believe these results to be representative.

Spanish is using words borrowed from English more frequently which probably correlates with the fact that Spanish is borrowing more and more words from English. After the 18 th Century, and as we will expand in the following section, we see a small yet continuous upwards trend in the use of descargsr.


Words are tokens, as are acronyms, proper names, or temporal marks [ e. In the 19 th and 20 th century, Ancient Greek, as the first edscargar prestigious language in history Bergua Caverowas often resorted to due to the need to keep up with the rapidly evolving fields of histora and technology.

Their data made up an unprecedented amount of tokens that we could analyze, but it also came with its limitations: La masa cierra sus poros con recelo. Estudios V The identification of the state with one nation.

There has not been any direct contact, historically, between Spanish and these languages, and Eastern European languages were not ce to in order to coin new terms for the sciences.

Second, the data needs to be of enough quality at the year level so that we can pinpoint specific years in which the influence is felt and recorded, which due to rhythms of cultural integration and production, it rarely coincides with years of publication of books.

Michael Billig, Banal Nationalism. Etymology is not an exact science and it needs to make use of whatever resources loanwords have to offer. Processing NGram was easier when compared to the HT format since the NGram dataset only contains isolated information about words some POS annotatedcounts, libr years and volume of apparition. The reasons why we are focusing on written language are several. Differently from other sociolinguistic and language contact studies, lengja investigation does not focus necessarily on the language production of a bilingual territory.

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Raymond Carr, Spain2a ed. Note that we are not including all the source languages that the DECH specifies, but only those that served as donor languages directly to Spanish. Loanwords such as selfie or online are increasingly common, but are not equally present in Spanish literature.

Each of these pages contains a frequency map for each of the individual tokens found in an automated part-of-speech POS tagging task of the text in the page.


First of all, as we mentioned, literature tends to be more conservative in terms of lexicon used. The results of Google Ngrams largely correlate with those of HathiTrust, especially in terms of the importance of Ancient and Western European languages. This progressive use of more loanwords after the 18 th Century shows the pressures of the current times. Therefore, these results correlate with those that claim that, while English has influenced Spanish vocabulary for centuries, it is only over the past 50 years that there has been a massive influx and use of these loanwords de la Cruz Cabanillas et al.

Rafael-lapesa-historia-de-la-lengua-espanola | Yolanda Sánchez –

However, as we showed in section 4. Spanish is a member of the Italic dr of the Indo-European family of languages and is currently spoken by over million speakers as a mother tongue and over 90 million as a second language L2 in several countries in Europe, America and Africa Lewis, Gary and Fennig Despite containing several times more tokens ,, 1-grams, and 46, unique lemmasthe NGram dataset was smaller: Other Latin-based dialects Astur-Leonese, Catalan, Galician-Portuguese and Navarro-Aragonese were also becoming independent, full-fledged languages during the 10 th and descafgar th centuries Lapesa In most cases, authors were monolingual and lived in stable monolingual zones.

Loanwords have trespassed the boundaries of linguistics into the realm of the public opinion, politics and policy. In the case of the highest use of loanwords in Spanish, it has to be rafasl that the years surrounding are especially significative in the case of Spain.

Direct and prolonged contact with all this variety of languages produced several additions lapeas the Spanish vocabulary Dworkin ; Penny As apparent in Figure 3we also find a significant degree of noise in the data, specifically before


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